Ground Penetrating Radar:
Table of Relative Dielectric Permittivity

The relative dielectric permittivity constant, K, for various materials.

Material
K
Material
K
Air 1 Wet Sandstone 6
Snow 1.5 Wet Granite 6.5
Dry Loamy / Clayey Soils 2.5 Wet Limestone 8
Dry Clay 4 Wet Basalt 8.5
Dry Sands 4-6 Tills 11
Ice 4 Forested land 12
Coal 4.5 Volcanic Ash 13
Asphalt 5 Rich agricultural land 15
Dry Granite 5 Wet Sands 15-25
Frozen Sand & Gravel 5.5 Wet Sandy Soils 23.5
Concrete 5.5 Saturated Sands 25
Dry Limestone 5.5 Wet Clay 27
Dry Sand & Gravel 5.5 Peats 61.5
Dry Sandy Soils 6 Organic Soils 64
Frozen Soil / Permafrost 6 Water (salt or fresh) 81
Source: Modified from GSSI 1999, SIR-System-2000 operation manual; Conyers & Goodman, 1997.

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Contribution by: Kenneth L. Kvamme, Archeo-Imaging Lab, University of Arkansas